Tuesday, 16 May 2017

Subfascial Primary Breast Augmentation with Fat Grafting: A Review of 156 Cases

Subfascial Primary Breast Augmentation with Fat Grafting: A Review of 156 Cases

Kerfant, N et al
Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery: May 2017 - Volume 139 - Issue 5 - p 1080e–1085e

Background: Composite breast augmentation with fat grafting and an implant has become very popular in the past 5 years. This achieves the core volume projection of an implant complemented by the natural appearance and feel of fat. However, no study has looked at the complications and reoperation rates of this technique. Methods: A retrospective chart review examined all patients who underwent the combined use of an implant and fat grafting for primary breast augmentation. Results: The study identified 156 patients between 2007 and 2013. The mean patient age was 31.7 years and the average body mass index was 18.85 kg/m2. The average implant size was 252 cc. Patients received a mean of 126 cc of fat (range, 30 to 250 cc) in subcutaneous soft tissue. Follow-up averaged 22.25 months (range, 1 to 86 months). The total complication rate was 7.7 percent and the reoperation rate was 9.94 percent. Baker grade II/III contracture was the most common complication [Baker grade II, n = 4 (2.56 percent); Baker grade III, n = 2 (2 percent)], followed by infections [n = 2 (1.28 percent)], hematoma [n = 2 (1.28 percent)], and malrotation [n = 1 (0.64 percent)]. Delayed reoperation was performed in nine patients (9.94 percent) after a mean interval of 31.7 months. Two patients who developed Baker grade III contractures needed surgery to correct the problem. Three cases (1.92 percent) required additional fat grafting for insufficient soft-tissue coverage. The mean volume of fat reinjection was 170 cc. Conclusions: Composite breast augmentation is a valuable, stable, reliable technique in breast aesthetic surgery with good, natural-appearing results. It provides long-term aesthetic benefits and avoids the submuscular plane.

Shaped versus Round Implants in Breast Reconstruction: A Multi-Institutional Comparison of Surgical and Patient-Reported Outcomes

Shaped versus Round Implants in Breast Reconstruction: A Multi-Institutional Comparison of Surgical and Patient-Reported Outcomes

Khavanin N et al
Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery: May 2017 - Volume 139 - Issue 5 - p1063 -1070

Background: Since the 2012 approval of shaped implants, their use in breast reconstruction has increased in the United States. However, large-scale comparisons of complications and patient-reported outcomes are lacking. The authors endeavored to compare surgical and patient-reported outcomes across implant types. 
Methods: The Mastectomy Reconstruction Outcomes Consortium database was queried for expander/implant reconstructions with at least 1-year postexchange follow-up (mean, 18.5 months). Outcomes of interest included postoperative complications, 1-year revisions, and patient-reported outcomes. Bivariate and mixed-effects regression analyses evaluated the effect of implant type on patient outcomes. 
Results: Overall, 822 patients (73.5 percent) received round and 297 patients (26.5 percent) received shaped implants. Patients undergoing unilateral reconstructions with round implants underwent more contralateral symmetry procedures, including augmentations (round, 18.7 percent; shaped, 6.8 percent; p = 0.003) and reductions (round, 32.2 percent; shaped, 20.5 percent; p = 0.019). Shaped implants were associated with higher rates of infection (shaped, 6.1 percent; round, 2.3 percent; p = 0.002), that remained significant after multivariable adjustment. Other complication rates did not differ significantly between cohorts. Round and shaped implants experienced similar 2-year patient-reported outcome scores. 
Conclusions: This prospective, multicenter study is the largest evaluating outcomes of shaped versus round implants in breast reconstruction. Although recipients of round implants demonstrated lower infection rates compared with shaped implants, these patients were more likely to undergo contralateral symmetry procedures. Both implant types yielded comparable patient-reported outcome scores. With appropriate patient selection, both shaped and round implants can provide acceptable outcomes in breast reconstruction.

What Is the Standard Volume to Increase a Cup Size for Breast Augmentation Surgery? A Novel Three-Dimensional Computed Tomographic Approach

What Is the Standard Volume to Increase a Cup Size for Breast Augmentation Surgery? A Novel Three-Dimensional Computed Tomographic Approach

King, N et al
Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery: May 2017 - Volume 139 - Issue 5 - p 1084–1089

Background: Breast augmentation surgery poses many challenges, and meeting the patient’s expectations is one of the most important. Previous reports equate 100 cc to a one-cup-size increase; however, no studies have confirmed this between commercially available bras. The aim of this study was to identify the volume increase between cup sizes across different brands and the relationship with implant selection. 
Methods: Five bra cup sizes from three different companies were analyzed for their volume capacity. Three methods were used to calculate the volume of the bras: (1) linear measurements; (2) volume measurement by means of water displacement; and (3) volume calculation after three-dimensional reconstruction of serial radiographic data (computed tomography). The clinical arm consisted of 79 patients who underwent breast augmentation surgery from February 1, 2014, to June 30, 2016. Answers from a short questionnaire in combination with the implant volume were analyzed. Results: Across all three brands, the interval volume increase varied between sizes, but not all were above 100 cc. There was some variation in the volume capacity of the same cup size among the different brands. The average incremental increase in bra cup size across all three brands in the laboratory arm was 135 cc. The mean volume increase per cup size was 138.23 cc in the clinical arm. Conclusions: This article confirms that there is no standardization within the bra manufacturing industry. On the basis of this study, patients should be advised that 130 to 150 cc equates to a one-cup-size increase. Bras with narrower band widths need 130 cc and wider band widths require 150 cc to increase one cup size.

Global Adverse Event Reports of Breast Implant–Associated ALCL: An International Review of 40 Government Authority Databases

Global Adverse Event Reports of Breast Implant–Associated ALCL: An International Review of 40 Government Authority Databases

Srinivasa, D R et al
Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery: May 2017 - Volume 139 - Issue 5 - p 1029–1039

Background: Tracking world cases of breast implant–associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is currently limited to patient registries at a few academic centers, dependent upon patient referral and case reports in the literature. The purpose of this study was to review and compare federal database adverse event reports of breast implant–associated ALCL encompassing the major breast implant markets worldwide. 
Methods: Federal implantable device regulatory bodies were contacted and database queries were performed for 40 countries. Demographics, device characteristics, pathology, treatment modalities, and outcomes were assessed when available. Results: For the countries queried, 363 unique cases were reported for breast implant–associated ALCL. Search terms “anaplastic” and “ALCL” were queried of the U.S. Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database and yielded 258 unique cases as of September 2015, of which only 130 had pathologic markers performed. Implant surface was textured significantly more than smooth (50 percent versus 4.2 percent; p = 0.0001). Treatment, when reported (n = 136), included explantation [n = 125 (91.9 percent)], chemotherapy [n = 42 (30.8 percent)], radiation therapy [n = 25 (18.4 percent)], and/or stem cell transplant [n = 9 (6.6 percent)], and five deaths were reported. 
Conclusions: Federal reporting of breast implant–associated ALCL has limitations in providing clinical history, treatment, and oncologic follow-up. Worldwide and country-specific total and textured implant sales data are needed to determine critical incidence and prevalence analysis. International multi-institutional collaborations and centralized tissue consortiums working in concert with federal authorities are necessary to acquire accurate complete data on breast implant–associated ALCL.

Adolescent Desire for Cosmetic Surgery: Associations with Bullying and Psychological Functioning

Adolescent Desire for Cosmetic Surgery: Associations with Bullying and Psychological Functioning

Lee, K M et al
Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery: May 2017 - Volume 139 - Issue 5 - p 1109–1118

Background: Adolescent bullying may be a key driver of interest in cosmetic surgery. This study examined the extent of such interest and whether any effect was sex-specific, and examined psychological functioning as a potential mechanism through which bullying involvement may lead to a wish for cosmetic surgery. 
Methods: A two-stage design was used. In the first stage, 2782 adolescents (aged 11 to 16 years) were screened for bullying involvement using self-reports and peer nominations. In the second stage, 752 adolescents who were bullies, victims, bully-victims, or uninvolved in bullying reported their desire for cosmetic surgery. Psychological functioning was constructed as a composite of self-esteem and emotional problems (assessed at stage 1) and body-esteem scores (assessed at stage 2). 
Results: Adolescents involved in bullying in any role were significantly more interested in cosmetic surgery than uninvolved adolescents. Desire for cosmetic surgery was greatest in adolescents who were bullied (victims and bully-victims) and girls. Desire for cosmetic surgery was highest in girls, but sex did not interact with bullying role. Being victimized by peers resulted in poor psychological functioning, which increased desire for cosmetic surgery. In contrast, desire for cosmetic surgery in bullies was not related to psychological functioning, which was in the normal range. 
Conclusions: Bullying victimization is related to poor psychological functioning, and both are related to a greater desire for cosmetic surgery in adolescents. Cosmetic surgeons should screen candidates for psychological vulnerability and may want to include a short screening questionnaire for a history of peer victimization.

Is Enhanced Recovery the New Standard of Care in Microsurgical Breast Reconstruction?

Is Enhanced Recovery the New Standard of Care in Microsurgical Breast Reconstruction?

Afonso, A et al

Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery: May 2017 - Volume 139 - Issue 5 - p 1053–1061

Background: At present, there are limited data available regarding the use and feasibility of enhanced recovery pathways for patients undergoing microsurgical breast reconstruction. The authors sought to assess patient outcomes before and after the introduction of an enhanced recovery pathway that was adopted at a single cancer center. 
Methods: A multidisciplinary enhanced recovery pathway was developed for patients undergoing deep inferior epigastric perforator or free transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap breast reconstruction. Core elements of the enhanced recovery pathway included substituting intravenous patient-controlled analgesia with ketorolac and transversus abdominis plane blocks using liposomal bupivacaine, as well as intraoperative goal-directed fluid management. Patients who underwent surgery between April and August of 2015 using the enhanced recovery pathway were compared with a historical control cohort. The primary endpoints were hospital length of stay and total postoperative opioid consumption. 
Results: In total, 91 consecutive patients were analyzed (enhanced recovery pathway, n = 42; pre–enhanced recovery pathway, n = 49). Mean hospital length of stay was significantly shorter in the enhanced recovery pathway group than in the pre–enhanced recovery pathway group (4.0 days versus 5.0 days; p < 0.0001). Total postoperative morphine equivalent consumption was also lower in the enhanced recovery pathway group (46.0 mg versus 70.5 mg; p = 0.003). There was no difference in the incidence of 30-day complications between the groups (p = 0.6). 
Conclusion: The adoption of an enhanced recovery pathway for deep inferior epigastric perforator and transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap reconstruction by multiple surgeons significantly decreased opioid consumption and reduced length of stay by 1 day.

The Challenges of Augmentation Mastopexy in the Massive Weight Loss Patient: Technical Considerations

The Challenges of Augmentation Mastopexy in the Massive Weight Loss Patient: Technical Considerations
Coombs, D M et al
Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery: May 2017 - Volume 139 - Issue 5 - p 1090–1099

Background: Augmentation mastopexy in the massive weight loss population is challenging because of poor skin elasticity and lack of inframammary support. Despite several large studies of augmentation mastopexy in the literature, few data exist regarding this unique patient population. The authors examine early postoperative ptosis, implant malposition, and strategies to optimize outcomes. Methods: A retrospective review of massive weight loss patients who underwent augmentation mastopexy from 2003 to 2011 was performed to record age, body mass index, implant characteristics, postoperative ptosis, and implant malposition. Results: Thirty patients were identified with a mean age of 44.8 ± 8.5 years, mean current body mass index of 26.1 ± 3.9 kg/m2, and mean follow-up time of 283.5 days (range, 7 to 1095 days). Preoperatively, patients mostly presented with grade 3 ptosis (63.3 percent). Five patients (16.7 percent) developed postoperative ptosis within the first 3 months after surgery, with no increase after this time. Implant malposition increased significantly with time: 61.9 percent by 12 months (p = 0.006), with a median time for implant malposition of 160 days. Postoperative ptosis was significantly related to age (p = 0.039) and a larger left-side implant (p = 0.022). Implant malposition was significantly related to higher current body mass index (p = 0.047), but not to implant size. Two patients (6.6 percent) underwent revision procedures. Conclusion: Massive weight loss patients have an increased risk of early postoperative ptosis or implant malposition, reinforcing the need for appropriate preoperative counseling to manage patient expectations. 

U.S. Epidemiology of Breast Implant–Associated Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma

U.S. Epidemiology of Breast Implant–Associated Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma

Doren, E L et al
Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery: May 2017 - Volume 139 - Issue 5 - p 1042–1050

Background: Breast implant–associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a distinctive type of T-cell lymphoma that arises around breast implants. Although rare, all cases with adequate history have involved a textured breast implant. The objective of this study was to determine the U.S. incidence and lifetime prevalence of breast implant–associated ALCL in women with textured breast implants. 
Methods: This is a retrospective review of documented cases of breast implant–associated ALCL in the United States from 1996 to 2015. The incidence and prevalence were determined based on a literature and institutional database review of breast implant–associated ALCL cases and textured breast implant sales figures from implant manufacturers’ annualized data. 
Results: One hundred pathologically confirmed breast implant–associated ALCL cases were identified in the United States. Mean age at diagnosis was 53.2 ± 12.3 years. Mean interval from implant placement to diagnosis was 10.7 ± 4.6 years. Forty-nine patients had breast implants placed for cosmetic reasons, 44 for mastectomy reconstruction, and seven for unknown reasons. Assuming that breast implant–associated ALCL occurs only in textured breast implants, the incidence rate is 2.03 per 1 million person-years (203 per 100 million person-years), which is 67.6 times higher than that of primary ALCL of the breast in the general population (three per 100 million per year; p < 0.001). Lifetime prevalence was 33 per 1 million persons with textured breast implants. 
Conclusions: This study demonstrates a statistically significant association between textured breast implants and breast implant–associated ALCL. Although women with a textured breast implant have a low risk of developing breast implant–associated ALCL, the current U.S. incidence is significantly higher than that of primary ALCL of the breast in the general population.

Role of Mitomycin C in Preventing Capsular Contracture in Implant-Based Reconstructive Breast Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Role of Mitomycin C in Preventing Capsular Contracture in Implant-Based Reconstructive Breast Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Nava, M B et al

Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery: April 2017 - Volume 139 - Issue 4 - p 819–826

Background: Capsular contracture represents the most frequent complication after implant-based breast reconstruction. An experimental study on mice demonstrated that capsule formation around breast implants is considerably diminished after topical application of mitomycin C. The authors conducted a randomized controlled clinical trial investigating the efficacy of mitomycin C in reducing capsular contracture rates following implant-based breast reconstruction after mastectomy for breast cancer. 
Methods: The authors randomized all women older than 18 years scheduled for the second stage of an implant-based breast reconstruction after mastectomy for breast cancer at the National Cancer Institute in Milan from October of 2005 to February of 2010 to receive or not receive the topical application of mitomycin C during surgery. The authors assessed capsular contracture, major postoperative complications, and aesthetic outcome.
 Results: The authors randomized 322 patients to receive mitomycin C or not at the second stage of implant-based breast reconstruction. One hundred sixty-two patients were allocated to the mitomycin C group and 160 patients were allocated to the control group. The relative risk of capsular contracture in the mitomycin C group was 0.92 (95 percent CI, 0.60 to 1.41). Major complications leading to reintervention, oncologic outcomes, and aesthetic outcomes were comparable between the two groups. 
Conclusions: This is the first trial reporting data about the use of mitomycin C in breast reconstructive surgery in a clinical setting. Mitomycin C seems not to significantly affect capsular contracture rate and severity following implant-based reconstructive breast surgery at the tested doses. 

Direct-to-Implant Breast Reconstruction without the Use of an Acellular Dermal Matrix Is Cost Effective and Oncologically Safe

Direct-to-Implant Breast Reconstruction without the Use of an Acellular Dermal Matrix Is Cost Effective and Oncologically Safe

Serrurie,L.C et al
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery: April 2017 - Volume 139 - Issue 4 - p 809–817

Background: Direct-to-implant breast reconstruction is a predictable, reliable, and cost-effective reconstruction. Most units performing direct-to-implant reconstructions recommend the use of an acellular dermal matrix or a mesh to reinforce the lower pole of the breast reconstruction. 
Methods: Two hundred seventy-two consecutive patients with 488 immediate direct-to-implant breast reconstructions performed in a 34-month period are included in this group. Mean follow-up of this group is 35 months. 
Results: Four hundred eight reconstructions were performed through a lazy-S mastectomy, and 80 were performed through a Wise pattern mastectomy. Two local recurrences occurred. Minor complications accounted for 5.5 percent (n = 27): seromas, 3.4 percent (n = 17); wound healing problems, 0.6 percent (n = 3); and grade 2 capsular contracture, 1.4 percent (n = 7). Major complications accounted for 4.3 percent (n = 21): infection, 0.8 percent (n = 4); prosthetic loss, 0.4 percent (n = 2); hematoma, 0.4 percent (n = 2); and wounds requiring d├ębridement, 2 percent (n = 10). The additional cost of acellular dermal matrix is dependent on manufacturer and size, but increases the cost of the procedure by 35.5 to 47.7 percent. 
Conclusions: This reconstruction method compares very favorably with published data from other units as far as early and late complications and cosmetic outcome are concerned. It has a complication rate similar to that of reconstructions using an acellular dermal matrix and is more cost effective. 

Thursday, 13 April 2017

Oncoplastic Breast Reduction Technique and Outcomes: An Evolution over 20 Years

Oncoplastic Breast Reduction Technique and Outcomes: An Evolution over 20 Years
Losken, A et al
Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery: April 2017 - Volume 139 - Issue 4 - p 824e–833e

Background: Reduction mammaplasty at the time of lumpectomy is a good option in women with breast cancer and macromastia. We critically evaluated refinements and outcomes of this technique. Methods: A prospectively maintained database was reviewed of all women with breast cancer who received lumpectomy and reduction mammaplasty at our institution from 1994 to 2015. Patients’ demographics were reviewed. Preoperative and postoperative patient satisfaction (BREAST-Q) was determined. Comparisons were made between early and recent cases. 
Results: There were 353 patients included. Average age was 54 (range, 21 to 80 years), with the largest number having stage I disease [n = 107 of 246 (43.5 percent)]. Average lumpectomy specimen was 207 g (range, 11.6 to 1954 g) and total reduction weight averaged 545 g (range, 21 to 4102 g). Tumor size averaged 2.02 cm (range, 0.00 to 15.60 cm). The positive margin rate was 6.2 percent (n = 22). Completion mastectomy rate was 9.9 percent (n = 35). Overall complication rate was 16 percent. The recurrence rate was 5.2 percent (n = 10 of 192) at a mean follow-up of 2 years (range, 2 months to 15 years). Resection weights greater than 1000 g were associated with having a positive margin (16.7 percent versus 5.0 percent; p = 0.016), and tended to be associated with having a completion mastectomy (p = 0.069). Positive margin and completion mastectomy rates have been lower in the past 10 years. Over 1 year postoperatively, women reported increased self-confidence (p = 0.020), feelings of attractiveness (p = 0.085), emotional health (p = 0.037), and satisfaction with sex life (p = 0.092). 
Conclusions: The oncoplastic reduction technique is effective and results in improved patient-reported outcomes. Resections over 1000 g are associated with a higher incidence of positive margins and may increase the risk for completion mastectomy. Outcomes have improved with experience and refinement in technique.

Differences in the Reporting of Racial and Socioeconomic Disparities among Three Large National Databases for Breast Reconstruction

Differences in the Reporting of Racial and Socioeconomic Disparities among Three Large National Databases for Breast Reconstruction
Kamali, P et al
Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery: April 2017 - Volume 139 - Issue 4 - p 795–807

Background: Research derived from large-volume databases plays an increasing role in the development of clinical guidelines and health policy. In breast cancer research, the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results, National Surgical Quality Improvement Program, and Nationwide Inpatient Sample databases are widely used. This study aims to compare the trends in immediate breast reconstruction and identify the drawbacks and benefits of each database. 
Methods: Patients with invasive breast cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ were identified from each database (2005–2012). Trends of immediate breast reconstruction over time were evaluated. Patient demographics and comorbidities were compared. Subgroup analysis of immediate breast reconstruction use per race was conducted. 
Results: Within the three databases, 1.2 million patients were studied. Immediate breast reconstruction in invasive breast cancer patients increased significantly over time in all databases. A similar significant upward trend was seen in ductal carcinoma in situ patients. Significant differences in immediate breast reconstruction rates were seen among races; and the disparity differed among the three databases. Rates of comorbidities were similar among the three databases. 
Conclusions: There has been a significant increase in immediate breast reconstruction; however, the extent of the reporting of overall immediate breast reconstruction rates and of racial disparities differs significantly among databases. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample and the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program report similar findings, with the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database reporting results significantly lower in several categories. These findings suggest that use of the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database may not be universally generalizable to the entire U.S. population.

Understanding the Health Burden of Macromastia: Normative Data for the BREAST-Q Reduction Module

Understanding the Health Burden of Macromastia: Normative Data for the BREAST-Q Reduction Module
Mundy, L et al
Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery: April 2017 - Volume 139 - Issue 4 - p 846e–853e

Background: The BREAST-Q Reduction module evaluates outcomes in reduction mammaplasty. However, there are currently no published normative scores, limiting the interpretation of BREAST-Q data. 
Methods: The BREAST-Q Reduction module was administered via the Army of Women, an online community of women (with and without breast cancer) engaged in breast-cancer related research. Normative data were generated from women aged 18 years and older, without a history of breast cancer or breast surgery. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and a linear multivariate regression. Generated normative data were compared to published BREAST-Q Reduction findings. 
Results: The preoperative version of the BREAST-Q Reduction module was completed by 1206 women. Participant mean age was 55 ± 13 years, mean body mass index was 27 ± 6 kg/m2, and 40 percent (n = 481) had a bra cup size ≥ D. Mean normative scores were as follows: Satisfaction with Breasts, 57 ± 16; Psychosocial Well-being, 68 ± 19; Sexual Well-being, 55 ± 19; and Physical Well-being, 76 ± 11. Normative scores were lower in women with body mass index ≥ 30 and bra cup size ≥ D. In comparison to normative Army of Women scores, published BREAST-Q scores for women undergoing reduction mammaplasty were lower (worse) for preoperative patients and higher (better) for postoperative patients. 
Conclusion: These new Army of Women normative data provide insights into breast-related satisfaction and well-being in women not pursuing breast reduction, giving new clinical context to better understand the health burden of macromastia, and to demonstrate the value of reduction mammaplasty in certain patients.

Reconstruction of the Irradiated Breast: A National Claims-Based Assessment of Postoperative Morbidity

Reconstruction of the Irradiated Breast: A National Claims-Based Assessment of Postoperative Morbidity
Chetta, M et al
Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery: April 2017 - Volume 139 - Issue 4 - p 783–792

Background: Implant-based reconstruction rates have risen among irradiation-treated breast cancer patients in the United States. This study aims to assess the morbidity associated with various breast reconstruction techniques in irradiated patients. 
Methods: From the MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters database, the authors selected breast cancer patients who had undergone mastectomy, irradiation, and breast reconstruction from 2009 to 2012. Demographic and clinical treatment data, including data on the timing of irradiation relative to breast reconstruction were recorded. Complications and failures after implant and autologous reconstruction were also recorded. A multivariable logistic regression model was developed with postoperative complications as the dependent variable and patient demographic and clinical variables as independent variables. 
Results: Four thousand seven hundred eighty-one irradiated patients who met the inclusion criteria were selected. A majority of the patients [n = 3846 (80 percent)] underwent reconstruction with implants. Overall complication rates were 45.3 percent and 30.8 percent for patients with implant and autologous reconstruction, respectively. Failure of reconstruction occurred in 29.4 percent of patients with implant reconstruction compared with 4.3 percent of patients with autologous reconstruction. In multivariable logistic regression, irradiated patients with implant reconstruction had two times the odds of having any complication and 11 times the odds of failure relative to patients with autologous reconstruction. 
Conclusions: Implant-based breast reconstruction in the irradiated patient, although popular, is associated with significant morbidity. Failures of reconstruction with implants in these patients approach 30 percent in the short term, suggesting a need for careful shared decision-making, with full disclosure of the potential morbidity.

Versatility of the Profunda Artery Perforator Flap: Creative Uses in Breast Reconstruction

Versatility of the Profunda Artery Perforator Flap: Creative Uses in Breast Reconstruction
Haddock, N et al

Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery: March 2017 - Volume 139 - Issue 3 - p 606e–612e

Background: Flaps based on the profunda artery perforators were first used for reconstruction of pressure sores, burn contractures, and extremity wounds. Recently, a revised profunda artery perforator flap was introduced for breast reconstruction. However, the flap is rarely used despite interesting reports on its use. The authors present their experience with the profunda artery perforator flap, describing its versatile applications in breast reconstruction. 
Methods: The authors conducted a retrospective review of all patients of the lead author who underwent breast reconstruction with profunda artery perforator flaps before January of 2015. Patient demographics, perioperative data, and postoperative complications were recorded and analyzed. Results: Seventy-three consecutive profunda artery perforator flaps were used to reconstruct 71 breasts. In 21 breasts, a profunda artery perforator flap was used in conjunction with another flap—with a deep inferior epigastric perforator flap (n = 18), a superior gluteal artery perforator flap (n = 1), or as stacked profunda artery perforator flaps (n = 2). The flap failure rate was 2.7 percent. There was one case of clinically apparent fat necrosis. There were no other major flap complications. Donor-site complications included cellulitis in two thighs (2.7 percent) and minor wound dehiscence in six thighs (8.2 percent). All donor-site complications healed satisfactorily by secondary intention without any additional procedures. 
Conclusions: The profunda artery perforator flap is a safe and versatile option for breast reconstruction. It can be combined with other flaps when additional volume or skin requirements are present. Flap and donor-site complications are comparable to other free tissue breast reconstruction options.

Molecular Profiling Using Breast Cancer Subtype to Plan for Breast Reconstruction

Molecular Profiling Using Breast Cancer Subtype to Plan for Breast Reconstruction
Sandberg, L J et al
Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery: March 2017 - Volume 139 - Issue 3 - p 586e–596e

Background: Molecular profiling using breast cancer subtype has an increasing role in the multidisciplinary care of the breast cancer patient. The authors sought to determine the role of breast cancer subtyping in breast reconstruction and specifically whether breast cancer subtyping can determine the need for postmastectomy radiation therapy and predict recurrence-free survival to plan for the timing and technique of breast reconstruction. 
Methods: The authors reviewed prospectively collected data from 1931 reconstructed breasts in breast cancer patients who underwent mastectomy between November of 1999 and December of 2012. Reconstructed breasts were grouped by breast cancer subtype and examined for covariates predictive of recurrence-free survival and need for postmastectomy radiation therapy. 
Results: Of the reconstructed breasts, 753 (39 percent) were luminal A, 538 (27.9 percent) were luminal B, 224 (11.6 percent) were luminal HER2, 143 (7.4 percent) were HER2-enriched, and 267 (13.8 percent) were triple-negative breast cancer. Postmastectomy radiation therapy was delivered in 69 HER2-enriched patients (48.3 percent), 94 luminal HER2 patients (42 percent), 200 luminal B patients (37.2 percent), 99 triple-negative breast cancer patients (37.1 percent), and 222 luminal A patients (29.5 percent) (p < 0.0001). Luminal A cases had better recurrence-free survival than HER2-enriched cases, and triple-negative breast cancer cases had worse recurrence-free survival than HER2-enriched cases. Luminal B and luminal HER2 cases had recurrence-free survival similar to that for HER2-enriched cases. Luminal A subtype was associated with the best recurrence-free survival. Subtyping may have improved the breast surgery planning for 33.1 percent of delayed reconstructions that did not require postmastectomy radiation therapy and 37 percent of immediate reconstructions that did require postmastectomy radiation therapy. 
Conclusion: This study is the first publication in the literature to evaluate breast cancer subtype to stratify risk for decision making in breast reconstruction.

Laser interstitial thermotherapy application for breast surgery: Current situation and new trends

Laser interstitial thermotherapy application for breast surgery: Current situation and new trends
Kerbage,Y et al
The Breast: June 2017Volume 33, Pages 145–152

While breast specialists debate on therapeutic de-escalation in breast cancer, the treatment of benign lesions is also discussed in relation to new percutaneous ablation techniques. The purpose of these innovations is to minimize potential morbidity. Laser Interstitial ThermoTherapy (LITT) is an option for the ablation of targeted nodules. This review evaluated the scientific publications investigating the LITT approach in malignant and benign breast disease. Three preclinical studies and eight clinical studies (2 studies including fibroadenomas and 6 studies including breast cancers) were reviewed.

Tuesday, 21 March 2017

Improved Recovery Experience Achieved for Women Undergoing Implant-Based Breast Reconstruction Using an Enhanced Recovery after Surgery Model

Improved Recovery Experience Achieved for Women Undergoing Implant-Based Breast Reconstruction Using an Enhanced Recovery after Surgery Model
Dumestre, D et al 
Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery: March 2017 - Volume 139 - Issue 3 - p 550–559

Background: Enhanced recovery after surgery was compared with traditional recovery after surgery for postmastectomy alloplastic breast reconstruction. 
Methods: Length of stay, emergency room visits, and complications within 30 days of surgery were compared among three groups: traditional recovery after surgery, transition (some elements of enhanced recovery protocol, not transitioned to outpatient care), and enhanced recovery after surgery (day surgery, provided with standardized perioperative education and multimodal analgesia). Prospective data collection allowed quality-of-recovery assessment using a validated questionnaire for enhanced recovery/transition groups. Results were statistically analyzed (analysis of variance/chi-square). 
Results: The traditional recovery, transition, and enhanced recovery cohorts comprised 29, 11, and 29 patients, respectively. No significant differences were present regarding age, smoking status, preoperative radiation, single stage direct-to-implant versus tissue expander, bilateral versus unilateral surgery, or immediate versus delayed reconstruction among groups. Average length of stay was 1.6 nights in both the traditional recovery and transition groups, compared with 0 nights in the enhanced recovery group (p < 0.001). Enhanced recovery patients had less severe pain (p = 0.02) and nausea (p = 0.01), and better enjoyed their food (p = 0.0002) and felt more rested (p = 0.02) than their transition counterparts. There were no differences in the number of emergency room visits among the three groups (p = 0.88). There was no difference in the rate of hematoma (p = 0.36), infection requiring intravenous antibiotics (p = 0.36), or infection requiring explantation (p = 0.36) among the three groups. Conclusion: An enhanced recovery protocol for alloplastic breast reconstruction treated patients safely, with improved patient satisfaction and same-day discharge and with no increase in complications. 

Intraoperative Comparison of Anatomical versus Round Implants in Breast Augmentation: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Intraoperative Comparison of Anatomical versus Round Implants in Breast Augmentation: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Hidalgo, DA. Weinstein, AL. 
Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery: March 2017 - Volume 139 - Issue 3 - p 587–596

Background: The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to determine whether anatomical implants are aesthetically superior to round implants in breast augmentation. 
Methods: Seventy-five patients undergoing primary breast augmentation had a round silicone implant of optimal volume, projection, and diameter placed in one breast and an anatomical silicone device of similar volume and optimal shape placed in the other. After intraoperative photographs were taken, the anatomical device was replaced by a round implant to complete the procedure. A survey designed to measure breast aesthetics was administered to 10 plastic surgeon and 10 lay reviewers for blind evaluation of the 75 cases. 
Results: No observable difference in breast aesthetics between anatomical and round implants was reported by plastic surgeons in 43.6 percent or by lay individuals in 29.2 percent of cases. When a difference was perceived, neither plastic surgeons nor lay individuals preferred the anatomical side more often than the round side. Plastic surgeons judged the anatomical side superior in 51.1 percent of cases and the round side superior in 48.9 percent of cases (p = 0.496). Lay individuals judged the anatomical side superior in 46.7 percent of cases and the round side superior in 53.3 percent (p = 0.140). Plastic surgeons identified implant shape correctly in only 26.5 percent of cases. Conclusions: This study provides high-level evidence supporting no aesthetic superiority of anatomical over round implants. Given that anatomical implants have important and unique disadvantages, a lack of proven aesthetic superiority argues against their continued use in breast augmentation.

Comparison of Different Acellular Dermal Matrices in Breast Reconstruction: The 50/50 Study

Comparison of Different Acellular Dermal Matrices in Breast Reconstruction: The 50/50 Study
Pittman, T et al
Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery: March 2017 - Volume 139 - Issue 3 - p 521–528

Background: Acellular dermal matrix has enjoyed extensive use in primary and secondary alloplastic breast aesthetic and reconstructive surgery. The objective of this study was to examine clinical outcomes between available acellular dermal matrix products: DermACELL (LifeNet Health, Virginia Beach, Va.) and AlloDerm Ready To Use (LifeCell Corp., Branchburg, N.J.). 
Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on 58 consecutive patients (100 breasts) reconstructed with either DermACELL (n = 30 patients; 50 breasts) or AlloDerm Ready To Use (n = 28 patients; 50 breasts). The mastectomies were performed by three different breast surgeons. All reconstructions were performed by the same plastic surgeon (T.A.P.). Statistical analysis was performed by means of Fisher’s exact test. 
Results: Differences in the average age, body mass index, percentage having neoadjuvant/adjuvant chemotherapy or breast irradiation, and numbers of therapeutic and prophylactic mastectomies between the two groups were not statistically significant (p < 0.05). Complications in both cohorts of patients were clinically recorded for 90 days after immediate reconstruction. When comparing outcomes, patients in the DermACELL group had a significantly lower incidence of “red breast syndrome” (0 percent versus 26 percent; p = 0.0001) and fewer days before drain removal (15.8 days versus 20.6 days; p = 0.017). No significant differences were seen in terms of seroma, hematoma, delayed healing, infection, flap necrosis, or explantation. 
Conclusion: Patients reconstructed with DermACELL as compared with AlloDerm Ready To Use have significantly decreased number of days to drain removal and red breast syndrome and equivalent rates of other complications, including seroma, infection, flap necrosis, and explantation.