Tuesday, 4 July 2017

Rationale for immunological approaches to breast cancer therapy

Rationale for immunological approaches to breast cancer therapy

Monnot GC and Romero P
The Breast 
Article in Press

Despite great advances in early detection, as well as surgical resection of breast tumours, breast cancer remains the deadliest cancer for women worldwide. Moreover, its incidence is without pair, accounting for twice as many new cancer cases as the second most prevalent cancer, colorectal carcinoma. There is therefore a strong need for new therapeutic approaches to breast cancers. Immunotherapies are novel treatment modalities which aim to use immune mediators to attack cancerous cells. Recent clinical results show that these may not only mediate tumour regressions but also cures in some cases.

Evaluation of margins in invasive carcinoma and ductal carcinoma in situ: The pathologist's perspective

Evaluation of margins in invasive carcinoma and ductal carcinoma in situ: The pathologist's perspective

Schnitt SJ
The Breast 
Article in Press

A variety of patient factors, treatment factors and pathologic factors are associated with an increased risk of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (local recurrence) after breast conservation therapy for invasive breast cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Arguably, the most important of these is the status of the microscopic margins of excision of the resected breast specimen. Until recently there has been no agreement on what constitutes an adequate negative lumpectomy margin for patients with either invasive breast cancer or DCIS managed with the breast conserving approach  and this issue has never been addressed in randomized clinical trials.

Postoperative radiotherapy after DCIS: Useful for whom?

Postoperative radiotherapy after DCIS: Useful for whom?

Karlsson P
The Breast 
Article in Press

The number of patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) increases with more widely used screening mammography programs. DCIS accounts for approximately 20% of all new breast cancer diagnoses in these programs and the natural course of this heterogeneous group of pre-invasive lesions is not fully known. Better definition of subgroups benefitting from radiotherapy and knowledge on the natural course of DCIS are important issues for the future management of DCIS.Four large randomized trials have studied the effects of postoperative radiotherapy after breast conserving surgery in patients with wider spectrum of DCIS and all of them have shown radiotherapy to halve the risk of ipsilateral events, however, without any significant effect on breast cancer mortality.

Impact of Evolving Radiation Therapy Techniques on Implant-Based Breast Reconstruction

Impact of Evolving Radiation Therapy Techniques on Implant-Based Breast Reconstruction

Muresan, H et al
Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery: June 2017 - Volume 139 - Issue 6 - p 1232e–1239e

Background: Patients undergoing implant-based reconstruction in the setting of postmastectomy radiation therapy suffer from increased complications and inferior outcomes compared with those not irradiated, but advances in radiation delivery have allowed for more nuanced therapy. The authors investigated whether these advances impact patient outcomes in implant-based breast reconstruction. 
Methods: Retrospective chart review identified all implant-based reconstructions performed at a single institution from November of 2010 to November of 2013. These data were cross-referenced with a registry of patients undergoing breast irradiation. Patient demographics, treatment characteristics, and outcomes were analyzed. 
Results: Three hundred twenty-six patients (533 reconstructions) were not irradiated, whereas 83 patients (125 reconstructions) received radiation therapy; mean follow-up was 24.7 months versus 26.0 months (p = 0.49). Overall complication rates were higher in the irradiated group (35.2 percent versus 14.4 percent; p < 0.01). Increased maximum radiation doses to the skin were associated with complications (maximum dose to skin, p = 0.05; maximum dose to 1 cc of skin, p = 0.01). Different treatment modalities (e.g., three-dimensional conformal, intensity-modulated, field-in-field, and hybrid techniques) did not impact complication rates. Prone versus supine positioning significantly decreased the maximum skin dose (58.5 Gy versus 61.7 Gy; p = 0.05), although this did not translate to significantly decreased complication rates in analysis of prone versus supine positioning. 
Conclusions: As radiation techniques evolve, the maximum dose to skin should be given consideration similar to that for heart and lung dosing, to optimize reconstructive outcomes. Prone positioning significantly decreases the maximum skin dose and trends toward significance in reducing reconstructive complications. With continued study, this may become clinically important. Interdepartmental studies such as this one ensure quality of care.

Comparing Health Care Resource Use between Implant and Autologous Reconstruction of the Irradiated Breast: A National Claims-Based Assessment

Comparing Health Care Resource Use between Implant and Autologous Reconstruction of the Irradiated Breast: A National Claims-Based Assessment

Aliu, O et al
Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery: June 2017 - Volume 139 - Issue 6 - p 1224e–1231e

Background: In the debate on reconstruction of the irradiated breast, there is little information on associated health care resource use. Nationwide data were used to examine health care resource use associated with implant and autologous reconstruction. It was hypothesized that failure rates would contribute the most to higher average cumulative cost with either reconstruction method. 
Methods: From the 2009 to 2013 MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters database, irradiated breast cancer patients who underwent implant or autologous reconstruction were selected. In a 24-month follow-up period, the cumulative costs of health care services used were tallied and described. Regression models stratified by reconstruction method were then used to estimate the influence of failure on cumulative cost of reconstruction. 
Results: There were 2964 study patients. Most (78 percent) underwent implant reconstruction. The unadjusted mean costs for implant and autologous reconstructions were $22,868 and $30,527, respectively. Thirty-two percent of implant reconstructions failed, compared with 5 percent of autologous cases. Twelve percent of the implant reconstructions had two or more failures and required subsequent autologous reconstruction. The cost of implant reconstruction failure requiring a flap was $47,214, and the cost for autologous failures was $48,344. In aggregate, failures constituted more than 20 percent of the cumulative costs of implant reconstruction compared with less than 5 percent for autologous reconstruction. 
Conclusions: More than one in 10 patients who had implant reconstruction in the setting of radiation therapy to the breast eventually required a flap for failure. These findings make a case for autologous reconstruction being primarily considered in irradiated patients who have this option available.

Comparison of Outcomes with Tissue Expander, Immediate Implant, and Autologous Breast Reconstruction in Greater Than 1000 Nipple-Sparing Mastectomies

Comparison of Outcomes with Tissue Expander, Immediate Implant, and Autologous Breast Reconstruction in Greater Than 1000 Nipple-Sparing Mastectomies

Frey, J et al
Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery: June 2017 - Volume 139 - Issue 6 - p 1300–1310

Background: Nipple-sparing mastectomy permits complete preservation of the nipple-areola complex with excellent aesthetic results and with oncologic safety similar to that associated with traditional mastectomy techniques. However, outcomes have not been directly compared for tissue expander–, immediate implant–, and autologous tissue–based breast reconstruction after nipple-sparing mastectomy. Methods: All patients undergoing nipple-sparing mastectomy from 2006 to June of 2016 were identified at a single institution. Demographics and outcomes were analyzed and compared among different types of breast reconstruction. Results: A total of 1028 nipple-sparing mastectomies were performed. Of these, 533 (51.8 percent) were tissue expander–based, 263 (25.6 percent) were autologous tissue–based, and 232 (22.6 percent) were immediate implant–based reconstructions. Tissue expander–based reconstructions had significantly more minor cellulitis (p = 0.0002) but less complete nipple necrosis (p = 0.0126) and major mastectomy flap necrosis (p < 0.0001) compared with autologous tissue–based reconstructions. Compared to immediate implant–based reconstruction, tissue expander–based reconstructions had significantly more minor cellulitis (p = 0.0006) but less complete nipple necrosis (p = 0.0005) and major (p < 0.0001) and minor (p = 0.0028) mastectomy flap necrosis (p = 0.0059). Immediate implant–based reconstructions had significantly more minor cellulitis (p = 0.0051), minor mastectomy flap necrosis (p = 0.0425), and partial nipple necrosis (p = 0.0437) compared with autologous tissue–based reconstructions. Outcomes were otherwise equivalent among the three groups. Conclusions: Tissue expander, immediate implant, and autologous tissue breast reconstruction techniques may all be safely offered with nipple-sparing mastectomy. However, reconstructive complications appear to be greater with immediate implant– and autologous tissue–based techniques compared with tissue expander–based reconstruction.

Is Rotation a Concern with Anatomical Breast Implants? A Statistical Analysis of Factors Predisposing to Rotation

Is Rotation a Concern with Anatomical Breast Implants? A Statistical Analysis of Factors Predisposing to Rotation

Montemurro, P et al
Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery: June 2017 - Volume 139 - Issue 6 - p 1367–1378

Background: Since their introduction in 1993, anatomical implants have provided a more natural appearance in breast augmentation, and many surgeons advocate their use and promote the good aesthetic results. However, the risk of implant rotation makes some of them reluctant to use these devices. The rotation rate varies among authors. 
Methods: The authors present a 6.5-year series of 531 patients who underwent primary breast augmentation with macrotextured anatomical implants in a Swedish facility performed by one consultant surgeon (P.M.). The authors examined the rotation rate and the correlation with possible predisposing factors such as preoperative breast cup size, childbirth, and body mass index. 
Results: A total of 20 implants (1.88 percent; 95 percent CI, 1.15 to 2.89 percent) in 19 patients (3.58 percent; 95 percent CI, 2.17 to 5.53 percent) were rotated. In one patient (0.22 percent), both implants rotated, whereas in the remaining patients, the rotation was unilateral. The authors were unable to establish a statistically significant correlation between implant rotation and previous childbirth or increased body mass index. However, there was a relation between rotation rate and preoperative breast cup size that showed an upward trend as the cup size increased from A to C. 
Conclusion: The authors believe that if the implant is correctly selected and the operation is performed meticulously with proper pocket dissection, the rotation rate is minimal and it should not be considered a disadvantage for the use of anatomical implants.

Should Immediate Autologous Breast Reconstruction Be Considered in Women Who Require Postmastectomy Radiation Therapy? A Prospective Analysis of Outcomes

Should Immediate Autologous Breast Reconstruction Be Considered in Women Who Require Postmastectomy Radiation Therapy? A Prospective Analysis of Outcomes

Billig, J et al
Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery: June 2017 - Volume 139 - Issue 6 - p 1279–1288

Background: In women who require postmastectomy radiation therapy, immediate autologous breast reconstruction is often discouraged. The authors prospectively evaluated postoperative morbidity and satisfaction reported by women undergoing delayed or immediate autologous breast reconstruction in the setting of postmastectomy radiation therapy. 
Methods: Patients enrolled in the Mastectomy Reconstruction Outcomes Consortium study, who received postmastectomy radiotherapy and underwent immediate or delayed free abdominally based autologous breast reconstruction, were identified. Postoperative complications at 1 and 2 years after reconstruction were assessed. Patient-reported outcomes were evaluated using the BREAST-Q questionnaire preoperatively and at 1 and 2 years postoperatively. Bivariate analyses and mixed-effects regression models were used to compare outcomes. 
Results: A total of 175 patients met the authors’ inclusion criteria. Immediate reconstructions were performed in 108 patients and delayed reconstructions in 67 patients; 93.5 percent of immediate reconstructions were performed at a single center. Overall complication rates were similar based on reconstructive timing (25.9 percent immediate and 26.9 percent delayed at 1 year; p = 0.54). Patients with delayed reconstruction reported significantly lower prereconstruction scores (p < 0.0001) for Satisfaction with Breasts and Psychosocial and Sexual Well-being than did patients with immediate reconstruction. At 1 and 2 years postoperatively, both groups reported comparable levels of satisfaction in assessed BREAST-Q domains. 
Conclusions: From this prospective cohort, immediate autologous breast reconstruction in the setting of postmastectomy radiation therapy appears to be a safe option that may be considered in select patients and centers. Breast aesthetics and quality of life, evaluated from the patient’s perspective, were not compromised by flap exposure to radiation therapy. 

Principles of Breast Re-Reduction: A Reappraisal

Principles of Breast Re-Reduction: A Reappraisal

Mistry, RM et al
Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery: June 2017 - Volume 139 - Issue 6 - p 1313–1322

Background: This article examines outcomes following breast re-reduction surgery using a random pattern blood supply to the nipple and vertical scar reduction. Methods: A retrospective review was conducted of patients who underwent bilateral breast re-reduction surgery performed by a single surgeon over a 12-year period. Patient demographics, surgical technique, and outcomes were analyzed. Results: Ninety patients underwent breast re-reduction surgery. The average interval between primary and secondary surgery was 14 years (range, 0 to 42 years). The majority of patients had previously undergone primary breast reduction using an inferior pedicle [n = 37 (41 percent)]. Breast re-reduction surgery was most commonly performed using a random pattern blood supply, rather than recreating the primary pedicle [n = 77 (86 percent)]. The nipple-areola complex was repositioned in 60 percent of patients (n = 54). The mean volume of tissue resected was 250 g (range, 22 to 758 g) from the right breast and 244 g (range, 15 to 705 g) from the left breast. Liposuction was also used adjunctively in all cases (average, 455 cc; range, 50 to 1750 cc). Two patients experienced unilateral minor partial necrosis of the areolar edge but not of the nipple itself (2 percent). Conclusions: Breast re-reduction can be performed safely and predictably, even when the previous technique is not known. Four key principles were developed: (1) the nipple-areola complex can be elevated by deepithelialization rather than recreating or developing a new pedicle; (2) breast tissue is removed where it is in excess, usually inferiorly and laterally; (3) the resection is complemented with liposuction to elevate the bottomed-out inframammary fold; and (4) skin should not be excised horizontally below the inframammary fold. 

Fat Grafting after Invasive Breast Cancer: A Matched Case-Control Study

Fat Grafting after Invasive Breast Cancer: A Matched Case-Control Study

Petit, JY et al
Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery: June 2017 - Volume 139 - Issue 6 - p 1292–1296

Background: Fat grafting has been widely indicated for postmastectomy and postlumpectomy breast reconstruction. The literature emphasizes the clinical efficacy of fat grafting, but experimental studies raise important questions about the recurrence risk because of the stimulation of remaining cancer cells by progenitor or adult adipocytes. Because breast conservative treatment provides a higher risk of residual cancer cells in the breast tissue compared with mastectomy, the authors set up a matched case-control study of fat grafting versus no fat grafting after breast conservative treatment. Methods: The authors collected data from 322 consecutive patients operated on for a primary invasive breast cancer who subsequently underwent fat grafting for breast reshaping from 2006 to 2013. All patients were free of recurrence before fat grafting. For each patient, the authors selected one patient with similar characteristics who did not undergo fat grafting. Results: After a mean follow-up of 4.6 years (range, 0.1 to 10.2 years) after fat grafting, or a corresponding time for controls, the authors observed no difference in the incidence of local events (fat grafting, n = 14; controls, n = 16; p = 0.49), axillary nodes metastasis (fat grafting, n = 3; controls, n = 6; p = 0.23), distant metastases (fat grafting, n = 14; controls, n = 15; p = 0.67), or contralateral breast cancer (fat grafting, n = 4; controls, n = 4; p = 0.51). Conclusion: Fat grafting seems to be a safe procedure after breast conservative treatment for breast cancer patients. 

Breast Cancer after Augmentation: Oncologic and Reconstructive Considerations among Women Undergoing Mastectomy

Breast Cancer after Augmentation: Oncologic and Reconstructive Considerations among Women Undergoing Mastectomy

Cho, E et al
Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery: June 2017 - Volume 139 - Issue 6 - p 1240e–1249e

Background: Breast augmentation with subglandular versus subpectoral implants may differentially impact the early detection of breast cancer and treatment recommendations. The authors assessed the impact of prior augmentation on the diagnosis and management of breast cancer in women undergoing mastectomy. 
Methods: Breast cancer diagnosis and management were retrospectively analyzed in all women with prior augmentation undergoing therapeutic mastectomy at the authors’ institution from 1993 to 2014. Comparison was made to all women with no prior augmentation undergoing mastectomy in 2010. Subanalyses were performed according to prior implant placement. Results: A total of 260 women with (n = 89) and without (n = 171) prior augmentation underwent mastectomy for 95 and 179 breast cancers, respectively. Prior implant placement was subglandular (n = 27) or subpectoral (n = 63) (For five breasts, the placement was unknown). Breast cancer stage at diagnosis (p = 0.19) and detection method (p = 0.48) did not differ for women with and without prior augmentation. Compared to subpectoral augmentation, subglandular augmentation was associated with the diagnosis of invasive breast cancer rather than ductal carcinoma in situ (p = 0.01) and detection by self-palpation rather than screening mammography (p = 0.03). Immediate two-stage implant reconstruction was the preferred reconstructive method in women with augmentation (p < 0.01). 
Conclusions: Breast cancer stage at diagnosis was similar for women with and without prior augmentation. Among women with augmentation, however, subglandular implants were associated with more advanced breast tumors commonly detected on palpation rather than mammography. Increased vigilance in breast cancer screening is recommended among women with subglandular augmentation. 

Tuesday, 16 May 2017

Subfascial Primary Breast Augmentation with Fat Grafting: A Review of 156 Cases

Subfascial Primary Breast Augmentation with Fat Grafting: A Review of 156 Cases

Kerfant, N et al
Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery: May 2017 - Volume 139 - Issue 5 - p 1080e–1085e

Background: Composite breast augmentation with fat grafting and an implant has become very popular in the past 5 years. This achieves the core volume projection of an implant complemented by the natural appearance and feel of fat. However, no study has looked at the complications and reoperation rates of this technique. Methods: A retrospective chart review examined all patients who underwent the combined use of an implant and fat grafting for primary breast augmentation. Results: The study identified 156 patients between 2007 and 2013. The mean patient age was 31.7 years and the average body mass index was 18.85 kg/m2. The average implant size was 252 cc. Patients received a mean of 126 cc of fat (range, 30 to 250 cc) in subcutaneous soft tissue. Follow-up averaged 22.25 months (range, 1 to 86 months). The total complication rate was 7.7 percent and the reoperation rate was 9.94 percent. Baker grade II/III contracture was the most common complication [Baker grade II, n = 4 (2.56 percent); Baker grade III, n = 2 (2 percent)], followed by infections [n = 2 (1.28 percent)], hematoma [n = 2 (1.28 percent)], and malrotation [n = 1 (0.64 percent)]. Delayed reoperation was performed in nine patients (9.94 percent) after a mean interval of 31.7 months. Two patients who developed Baker grade III contractures needed surgery to correct the problem. Three cases (1.92 percent) required additional fat grafting for insufficient soft-tissue coverage. The mean volume of fat reinjection was 170 cc. Conclusions: Composite breast augmentation is a valuable, stable, reliable technique in breast aesthetic surgery with good, natural-appearing results. It provides long-term aesthetic benefits and avoids the submuscular plane.

Shaped versus Round Implants in Breast Reconstruction: A Multi-Institutional Comparison of Surgical and Patient-Reported Outcomes

Shaped versus Round Implants in Breast Reconstruction: A Multi-Institutional Comparison of Surgical and Patient-Reported Outcomes

Khavanin N et al
Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery: May 2017 - Volume 139 - Issue 5 - p1063 -1070

Background: Since the 2012 approval of shaped implants, their use in breast reconstruction has increased in the United States. However, large-scale comparisons of complications and patient-reported outcomes are lacking. The authors endeavored to compare surgical and patient-reported outcomes across implant types. 
Methods: The Mastectomy Reconstruction Outcomes Consortium database was queried for expander/implant reconstructions with at least 1-year postexchange follow-up (mean, 18.5 months). Outcomes of interest included postoperative complications, 1-year revisions, and patient-reported outcomes. Bivariate and mixed-effects regression analyses evaluated the effect of implant type on patient outcomes. 
Results: Overall, 822 patients (73.5 percent) received round and 297 patients (26.5 percent) received shaped implants. Patients undergoing unilateral reconstructions with round implants underwent more contralateral symmetry procedures, including augmentations (round, 18.7 percent; shaped, 6.8 percent; p = 0.003) and reductions (round, 32.2 percent; shaped, 20.5 percent; p = 0.019). Shaped implants were associated with higher rates of infection (shaped, 6.1 percent; round, 2.3 percent; p = 0.002), that remained significant after multivariable adjustment. Other complication rates did not differ significantly between cohorts. Round and shaped implants experienced similar 2-year patient-reported outcome scores. 
Conclusions: This prospective, multicenter study is the largest evaluating outcomes of shaped versus round implants in breast reconstruction. Although recipients of round implants demonstrated lower infection rates compared with shaped implants, these patients were more likely to undergo contralateral symmetry procedures. Both implant types yielded comparable patient-reported outcome scores. With appropriate patient selection, both shaped and round implants can provide acceptable outcomes in breast reconstruction.

What Is the Standard Volume to Increase a Cup Size for Breast Augmentation Surgery? A Novel Three-Dimensional Computed Tomographic Approach

What Is the Standard Volume to Increase a Cup Size for Breast Augmentation Surgery? A Novel Three-Dimensional Computed Tomographic Approach

King, N et al
Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery: May 2017 - Volume 139 - Issue 5 - p 1084–1089

Background: Breast augmentation surgery poses many challenges, and meeting the patient’s expectations is one of the most important. Previous reports equate 100 cc to a one-cup-size increase; however, no studies have confirmed this between commercially available bras. The aim of this study was to identify the volume increase between cup sizes across different brands and the relationship with implant selection. 
Methods: Five bra cup sizes from three different companies were analyzed for their volume capacity. Three methods were used to calculate the volume of the bras: (1) linear measurements; (2) volume measurement by means of water displacement; and (3) volume calculation after three-dimensional reconstruction of serial radiographic data (computed tomography). The clinical arm consisted of 79 patients who underwent breast augmentation surgery from February 1, 2014, to June 30, 2016. Answers from a short questionnaire in combination with the implant volume were analyzed. Results: Across all three brands, the interval volume increase varied between sizes, but not all were above 100 cc. There was some variation in the volume capacity of the same cup size among the different brands. The average incremental increase in bra cup size across all three brands in the laboratory arm was 135 cc. The mean volume increase per cup size was 138.23 cc in the clinical arm. Conclusions: This article confirms that there is no standardization within the bra manufacturing industry. On the basis of this study, patients should be advised that 130 to 150 cc equates to a one-cup-size increase. Bras with narrower band widths need 130 cc and wider band widths require 150 cc to increase one cup size.

Global Adverse Event Reports of Breast Implant–Associated ALCL: An International Review of 40 Government Authority Databases

Global Adverse Event Reports of Breast Implant–Associated ALCL: An International Review of 40 Government Authority Databases

Srinivasa, D R et al
Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery: May 2017 - Volume 139 - Issue 5 - p 1029–1039

Background: Tracking world cases of breast implant–associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is currently limited to patient registries at a few academic centers, dependent upon patient referral and case reports in the literature. The purpose of this study was to review and compare federal database adverse event reports of breast implant–associated ALCL encompassing the major breast implant markets worldwide. 
Methods: Federal implantable device regulatory bodies were contacted and database queries were performed for 40 countries. Demographics, device characteristics, pathology, treatment modalities, and outcomes were assessed when available. Results: For the countries queried, 363 unique cases were reported for breast implant–associated ALCL. Search terms “anaplastic” and “ALCL” were queried of the U.S. Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database and yielded 258 unique cases as of September 2015, of which only 130 had pathologic markers performed. Implant surface was textured significantly more than smooth (50 percent versus 4.2 percent; p = 0.0001). Treatment, when reported (n = 136), included explantation [n = 125 (91.9 percent)], chemotherapy [n = 42 (30.8 percent)], radiation therapy [n = 25 (18.4 percent)], and/or stem cell transplant [n = 9 (6.6 percent)], and five deaths were reported. 
Conclusions: Federal reporting of breast implant–associated ALCL has limitations in providing clinical history, treatment, and oncologic follow-up. Worldwide and country-specific total and textured implant sales data are needed to determine critical incidence and prevalence analysis. International multi-institutional collaborations and centralized tissue consortiums working in concert with federal authorities are necessary to acquire accurate complete data on breast implant–associated ALCL.

Adolescent Desire for Cosmetic Surgery: Associations with Bullying and Psychological Functioning

Adolescent Desire for Cosmetic Surgery: Associations with Bullying and Psychological Functioning

Lee, K M et al
Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery: May 2017 - Volume 139 - Issue 5 - p 1109–1118

Background: Adolescent bullying may be a key driver of interest in cosmetic surgery. This study examined the extent of such interest and whether any effect was sex-specific, and examined psychological functioning as a potential mechanism through which bullying involvement may lead to a wish for cosmetic surgery. 
Methods: A two-stage design was used. In the first stage, 2782 adolescents (aged 11 to 16 years) were screened for bullying involvement using self-reports and peer nominations. In the second stage, 752 adolescents who were bullies, victims, bully-victims, or uninvolved in bullying reported their desire for cosmetic surgery. Psychological functioning was constructed as a composite of self-esteem and emotional problems (assessed at stage 1) and body-esteem scores (assessed at stage 2). 
Results: Adolescents involved in bullying in any role were significantly more interested in cosmetic surgery than uninvolved adolescents. Desire for cosmetic surgery was greatest in adolescents who were bullied (victims and bully-victims) and girls. Desire for cosmetic surgery was highest in girls, but sex did not interact with bullying role. Being victimized by peers resulted in poor psychological functioning, which increased desire for cosmetic surgery. In contrast, desire for cosmetic surgery in bullies was not related to psychological functioning, which was in the normal range. 
Conclusions: Bullying victimization is related to poor psychological functioning, and both are related to a greater desire for cosmetic surgery in adolescents. Cosmetic surgeons should screen candidates for psychological vulnerability and may want to include a short screening questionnaire for a history of peer victimization.

Is Enhanced Recovery the New Standard of Care in Microsurgical Breast Reconstruction?

Is Enhanced Recovery the New Standard of Care in Microsurgical Breast Reconstruction?

Afonso, A et al

Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery: May 2017 - Volume 139 - Issue 5 - p 1053–1061

Background: At present, there are limited data available regarding the use and feasibility of enhanced recovery pathways for patients undergoing microsurgical breast reconstruction. The authors sought to assess patient outcomes before and after the introduction of an enhanced recovery pathway that was adopted at a single cancer center. 
Methods: A multidisciplinary enhanced recovery pathway was developed for patients undergoing deep inferior epigastric perforator or free transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap breast reconstruction. Core elements of the enhanced recovery pathway included substituting intravenous patient-controlled analgesia with ketorolac and transversus abdominis plane blocks using liposomal bupivacaine, as well as intraoperative goal-directed fluid management. Patients who underwent surgery between April and August of 2015 using the enhanced recovery pathway were compared with a historical control cohort. The primary endpoints were hospital length of stay and total postoperative opioid consumption. 
Results: In total, 91 consecutive patients were analyzed (enhanced recovery pathway, n = 42; pre–enhanced recovery pathway, n = 49). Mean hospital length of stay was significantly shorter in the enhanced recovery pathway group than in the pre–enhanced recovery pathway group (4.0 days versus 5.0 days; p < 0.0001). Total postoperative morphine equivalent consumption was also lower in the enhanced recovery pathway group (46.0 mg versus 70.5 mg; p = 0.003). There was no difference in the incidence of 30-day complications between the groups (p = 0.6). 
Conclusion: The adoption of an enhanced recovery pathway for deep inferior epigastric perforator and transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap reconstruction by multiple surgeons significantly decreased opioid consumption and reduced length of stay by 1 day.

The Challenges of Augmentation Mastopexy in the Massive Weight Loss Patient: Technical Considerations

The Challenges of Augmentation Mastopexy in the Massive Weight Loss Patient: Technical Considerations
Coombs, D M et al
Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery: May 2017 - Volume 139 - Issue 5 - p 1090–1099

Background: Augmentation mastopexy in the massive weight loss population is challenging because of poor skin elasticity and lack of inframammary support. Despite several large studies of augmentation mastopexy in the literature, few data exist regarding this unique patient population. The authors examine early postoperative ptosis, implant malposition, and strategies to optimize outcomes. Methods: A retrospective review of massive weight loss patients who underwent augmentation mastopexy from 2003 to 2011 was performed to record age, body mass index, implant characteristics, postoperative ptosis, and implant malposition. Results: Thirty patients were identified with a mean age of 44.8 ± 8.5 years, mean current body mass index of 26.1 ± 3.9 kg/m2, and mean follow-up time of 283.5 days (range, 7 to 1095 days). Preoperatively, patients mostly presented with grade 3 ptosis (63.3 percent). Five patients (16.7 percent) developed postoperative ptosis within the first 3 months after surgery, with no increase after this time. Implant malposition increased significantly with time: 61.9 percent by 12 months (p = 0.006), with a median time for implant malposition of 160 days. Postoperative ptosis was significantly related to age (p = 0.039) and a larger left-side implant (p = 0.022). Implant malposition was significantly related to higher current body mass index (p = 0.047), but not to implant size. Two patients (6.6 percent) underwent revision procedures. Conclusion: Massive weight loss patients have an increased risk of early postoperative ptosis or implant malposition, reinforcing the need for appropriate preoperative counseling to manage patient expectations. 

U.S. Epidemiology of Breast Implant–Associated Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma

U.S. Epidemiology of Breast Implant–Associated Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma

Doren, E L et al
Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery: May 2017 - Volume 139 - Issue 5 - p 1042–1050

Background: Breast implant–associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a distinctive type of T-cell lymphoma that arises around breast implants. Although rare, all cases with adequate history have involved a textured breast implant. The objective of this study was to determine the U.S. incidence and lifetime prevalence of breast implant–associated ALCL in women with textured breast implants. 
Methods: This is a retrospective review of documented cases of breast implant–associated ALCL in the United States from 1996 to 2015. The incidence and prevalence were determined based on a literature and institutional database review of breast implant–associated ALCL cases and textured breast implant sales figures from implant manufacturers’ annualized data. 
Results: One hundred pathologically confirmed breast implant–associated ALCL cases were identified in the United States. Mean age at diagnosis was 53.2 ± 12.3 years. Mean interval from implant placement to diagnosis was 10.7 ± 4.6 years. Forty-nine patients had breast implants placed for cosmetic reasons, 44 for mastectomy reconstruction, and seven for unknown reasons. Assuming that breast implant–associated ALCL occurs only in textured breast implants, the incidence rate is 2.03 per 1 million person-years (203 per 100 million person-years), which is 67.6 times higher than that of primary ALCL of the breast in the general population (three per 100 million per year; p < 0.001). Lifetime prevalence was 33 per 1 million persons with textured breast implants. 
Conclusions: This study demonstrates a statistically significant association between textured breast implants and breast implant–associated ALCL. Although women with a textured breast implant have a low risk of developing breast implant–associated ALCL, the current U.S. incidence is significantly higher than that of primary ALCL of the breast in the general population.

Role of Mitomycin C in Preventing Capsular Contracture in Implant-Based Reconstructive Breast Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Role of Mitomycin C in Preventing Capsular Contracture in Implant-Based Reconstructive Breast Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Nava, M B et al

Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery: April 2017 - Volume 139 - Issue 4 - p 819–826

Background: Capsular contracture represents the most frequent complication after implant-based breast reconstruction. An experimental study on mice demonstrated that capsule formation around breast implants is considerably diminished after topical application of mitomycin C. The authors conducted a randomized controlled clinical trial investigating the efficacy of mitomycin C in reducing capsular contracture rates following implant-based breast reconstruction after mastectomy for breast cancer. 
Methods: The authors randomized all women older than 18 years scheduled for the second stage of an implant-based breast reconstruction after mastectomy for breast cancer at the National Cancer Institute in Milan from October of 2005 to February of 2010 to receive or not receive the topical application of mitomycin C during surgery. The authors assessed capsular contracture, major postoperative complications, and aesthetic outcome.
 Results: The authors randomized 322 patients to receive mitomycin C or not at the second stage of implant-based breast reconstruction. One hundred sixty-two patients were allocated to the mitomycin C group and 160 patients were allocated to the control group. The relative risk of capsular contracture in the mitomycin C group was 0.92 (95 percent CI, 0.60 to 1.41). Major complications leading to reintervention, oncologic outcomes, and aesthetic outcomes were comparable between the two groups. 
Conclusions: This is the first trial reporting data about the use of mitomycin C in breast reconstructive surgery in a clinical setting. Mitomycin C seems not to significantly affect capsular contracture rate and severity following implant-based reconstructive breast surgery at the tested doses.